ISO/IEC JTC 1 SC 42 Artificial Intelligence - Working Group 4
Use Cases & Applications 09/25/2020
Editor's comments and enhancements are shown in green. [✓ Reviewed]
The quality of use case submissions will be evaluated for inclusion in the Working Group's Technical Report based on the application area, relevant AI technologies, credible reference sources (see References section), and the following characteristics:
 Data Focus & Learning: Use cases for AI system which utilizes Machine Learning, and those that use a fixed a priori knowledge base.
 Level of Autonomy: Use cases demonstrating several degrees (dependent, autonomous, human/critic in the loop, etc.) of AI system autonomy.
 Verifiability & Transparency: Use cases demonstrating several types and levels of verifiability and transparency, including approaches for explainable AI, accountability, etc.
 Impact: Use cases demonstrating the impact of AI systems to society, environment, etc.
 Architecture: Use cases demonstrating several architectural paradigms for AI systems (e.g., cloud, distributed AI, crowdsourcing, swarm intelligence, etc.)
 Functional aspects, trustworthiness, and societal concerns
 AI life cycle components include acquire/process/apply.
These characteristics are identified in red in the use case.
Automating Karyotyping of the chromosomes in cell spread images.
Segmentation of chromosomes in the images using non expert crowd
Short Description (up to 150 words)
Karyotyping of the chromosomes micro-photographed under metaphase is done by characterizing the individual chromosomes in cell spread images. Currently, considerable effort and time is spent to manually segment out chromosomes from cell images, and classifying the segmented chromosomes. We proposed a method to segment out and classify chromosomes for healthy patients using a combination of crowdsourcing, preprocessing and deep learning, wherein the non-expert crowd from external crowdsourcing platform is utilized to segment out the chromosomes, which are then classified using deep neural network. Results are encouraging and promise to significantly reduce the cognitive burden of segmenting and karyotyping chromosomes.
Metaphase chromosome analysis is one of the primary techniques utilized in cytogenetics. Observations of chromosomal segments or translocations during metaphase can indicate structural changes in the cell genome, and is often used for diagnostic purposes. Karyotyping of the chromosomes micro-photographed under metaphase is done by characterizing the individual chromosomes in cell spread images. Currently, considerable effort and time is spent to manually segment out chromosomes from cell images, and classifying the segmented chromosomes into one of the 24 types, or for diseased cells to one of the known translocated types. Segmenting out the chromosomes in such images can be especially laborious and is often done manually, if there are overlapping chromosomes in the image which are not easily separable by image processing techniques. Many techniques have been proposed to automate the segmentation and classification of chromosomes from spread images with reasonable accuracy, but given the criticality of the domain, a human in the loop is often still required. In this paper, we present a method to segment out and classify chromosomes for healthy patients using a combination of crowdsourcing, preprocessing and deep learning, wherein the non-expert crowd from CrowdFlower is utilized to segment out the chromosomes from the cell image, which are then straightened and fed into a (hierarchical) deep neural network for classification. Experiments are performed on 400 real healthy patient images obtained from a hospital. Results are encouraging and promise to significantly reduce the cognitive burden of segmenting and karyotyping chromosomes.
Without straightening and pre-processing, the average classification accuracy obtained was 68.5%. However, with preprocessing, the classification accuracy improved to 86.7%. These results are very likely to improve with more annotated training data for classification.
35.9 chromosomes segmented out after crowd annotation, for 50 images having 46 chromosomes
Sharma, Monika & Saha, Oindrila & Sriraman, Anand & Hebbalaguppe, Ramya & Vig, Lovekesh & Karande, Shirish. (2017). Crowdsourcing for Chromosome Segmentation and Deep Classification. 786-793. 10.1109/CVPRW.2017.109.
Peer-reviewed scientific/technical publications on AI applications (e.g. ).
Patent documents describing AI solutions (e.g. , ).
Technical reports or presentations by renowned AI experts (e.g. )
High quality company whitepapers and presentations
Publicly accessible sources with sufficient detail
This list is not exhaustive. Other credible sources may be acceptable as well.
Examples of credible sources:
 B. Du Boulay. "Artificial Intelligence as an Effective Classroom Assistant". IEEE Intelligent Systems, V 31, p.76-81. 2016.
 S. Hong. "Artificial intelligence audio apparatus and operation method thereof". N US 9,948,764, Available at: https://patents.google.com/patent/US20150120618A1/en. 2018.
 M.R. Sumner, B.J. Newendorp and R.M. Orr. "Structured dictation using intelligent automated assistants". N US 9,865,280, 2018.
 J. Hendler, S. Ellis, K. McGuire, N. Negedley, A. Weinstock, M. Klawonn and D. Burns. "WATSON@RPI, Technical Project Review".
URL: https://www.slideshare.net/jahendler/watson-summer-review82013final. 2013